The Concept of Wormhole was started during 1916 while an Austrian physicist Ludwig Flamm, was working on Karl Schwarzschild’s elucidation to Einstein’s field equations which describes about a particular form of black hole known as a Schwarzschild Black Hole, noticed another possible solution, which was later known to be “White Hole”. White hole is theoretical time reversal of Black Hole which turns as a vacuum drawing in any matter that crosses its horizon & a White hole acts as a source that ejects matter from it horizon. Some scientists speculated that every Black Hole as a White Hole which acts as a source that ejects the matter which was sucked by Black Hole and blow it in some alternate universe, which was thought to be Big Bang might have been the result of such a Phenomenon.
Flamm noticed two solutions for Karl Schwarzschild’s Hypothesis on Einstein’s field equation one being the space time could be mathematically connected by a kind of Space-time Conduit & second being the black hole as “Entrance”& White Hole as an “Exit” which could be in the different parts of same Universe or even in different Universes!
During 1935 Albert Einstein himself Explored these ideas along with Nathan Rosen used the theory of General Relativity to propose the existence of “bridges” through space-time. Hence called them as, Einstein-Rosen bridges (also known as a
or a Schwarzschild wormhole). A wormhole is a theoretical passage through space-time that could create shortcuts for long journeys across the universe. Wormholes contain two openings, with a connecting channel. The channel might be a straight stretch. Wormholes are predicted by the theory of general relativity. Certain theories of general relativity allow for the existence of wormholes.
In 1957, while working on extensions to general relativity, John Wheeler was an eminent American theoretical physicist, introduced the word “wormhole” to describe hypothetical tunnels in space-time. A wormhole is a theoretical shortcut between distant areas of space-time.
For better visualization of a wormhole, consider the analogy of a piece of paper with two pencil marks drawn on it (to represent two points in space-time), the line drawn between to marks shows the distance from one point to the other in space-time. If the paper is bent and poked with a pencil through it provides a much shorter way of linking the two points, that short-cut through space-time is considered to as a “WORMHOLE”. Typically wormholes are unstable integrally and gets collapsed in shorter time than would take to go through to the other side. At any rate, it is predicted that they would collapse instantly if even the tiniest amount of matter (even a single photon) attempted to pass through it.
There are two major problems with Wormholes. One being the size which is 10–33 centimetres and predicted to exist on microscopic levels. Second being the stability. As predicted by Einstein-Rosen wormholes are usually highly unstable & collapse very quickly. But more recent research found that a wormhole containing “exotic” matter could stay open and unchanged for longer time. Exotic matter is a negative energy and a huge negative pressure which is observed in quantum field theory. If a wormhole contained sufficient exotic matter, either naturally or artificially, it could theoretically be used as a method of sending information or for travelling through space.
Some scientists have speculated that the movement of opening in a specific manner could allow for space – time travel. But British cosmologist Stephen Hawking argued that it is impossible. Another scientist from NASA’s Eric Christian between 2002 and 2008 wrote “A wormhole is not really a means of going back in time, it’s a short cut, so that something that was far away is much closer,” According to him “There is no proof that wormholes exist. They are allowed in the math of General Relativity (which is our current best guess as to how the Universe works), but they’ve never been observed, and no one can figure out how one would actually be created. If they do exist, then there will probably be some material rotating around the outside of the wormhole and it might look “something” like a hurricane”.
Hence from this it is understood that Wormhole is an hypothetical expression of the existence of passage through space-time which was theoretically postulated by cosmologists.
Article by Surya.